Other Names: VIP (28 amino acids)
In the digestive system, VIP induces smooth muscle relaxation, stimulates secretion of water into pancreatic juice and bile, and inhibits gastric acid secretion and absorption from the intestinal lumen. It also helps regulate prolactin secretion and stimulates pepsinogen secretion. In addition, it also stimulates insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. VIP plays a role in regulating feeding behavior. VIP also is an immune system regulator which inhibits lipopolysaccaride (LPS) induced cytokine secretion in myeloid cells and decreases LPS-stimulated monocyte differentiation to macrophages. Recent experiments have shown that VIP is a promising candidate to therapeutically inhibit the progression of alopecia areata lesions. VIP along with PACAP were also shown to inhibit tissue factor expression in monocytes. Tissue factor is the major factor that initiates thrombus formation in sepsis, thus VIP and PACAP are potential candidate for multi-target therapy for septic shock. VIP prevents autoimmune uveoretinitis and may potentially be a novel therapeutic agent for human uveitis. Additionally, VIP inhibits the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 in human colon serosal fibroblasts. Since increased adhesion molecule expression leads to stricture formation in Crohn’s disease, VIP is a potential therapeutic agent for preventing stricture formation in Crohn’s disease. VIP is widely distributed in the adult central nervous system where it regulates synaptic transmission and neural excitability. VIP is also found in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the brain where it synchronizes activity with the environmental light-dark schedule. Experiments with VIP-deficient mice indicates that VIP regulates the recall of learned behavior. Winzell, M.S.; Ahrén, B., Peptides, 28, 1805, (2007); Matsuda, K.; Maruyama, K., Peptides, 28, 1761, (2007); Loh, D.H.; et al., Neuroendocrinology, 88, 246 (2008); Tao, Q.; Ren, J.; Li, J., J. Surg. Res., 140, 84 (2007); Delgado, M.; et al., J. Leukocyte Biol., 73, 155, (2003); Yamamoto, K.; et al., Diabetes, 52, 1155, (2003); Ganea, D., Cell Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand), 49, 127 (2003); Poso, D.; Delgado, M., FASEB J., 18, 1325 (2004); Romano, D.; et al., J. Biol. Chem., 278, 51386, (2003); Bertonlini, M.; Pretzlaff, M.; Sulk, M.; et al, Br. J. Dermatol., 2016, Epub. ahead of print.