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Recent Studies on the Antimicrobial Peptides Lactoferricin and Lactoferrampin.  Yin C, Wong JH, Ng TB, Curr. Mol. Med., 2014 Oct 15. [Epub ahead of print]

Lactoferricin and lactoferrampin, peptides derived from the whey protein lactoferrin, are antimicrobial agents with a promising prospect and are currently one of the research focuses. In this review, a basic introduction including location and solution structures of these two peptides is given. Their biological activities encompassing antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities with possible mechanisms are mentioned. In terms of modification studies, research about identification of their active derivatives and crucial amino acid residues is also discussed. Various attempts at modification of lactoferricin and lactoferrampin such as introducing big hydrophobic side-chains; employing special amino acids for synthesis; N-acetylization, amidation, cyclization and peptide  chimera are summarized. The studies on lactoferricin-lactoferrampin chimera are discussed in detail. Future prospects of lactoferricin and lactoferrampin are covered.