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Dolastatin 15, a mollusk linear peptide, and Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, prevent preneoplastic colonic lesions and induce apoptosis through inhibition of the regulatory transcription factor NF-κB and an inflammatory protein, iNOS.
Piplani H, Vaish V, Sanyal SN., Eur J Cancer Prev., 2012, 21, 511-22. DOI: 10.1097/CEJ.0b013e328351c69d

The marine ecosystem is a unique and enormously rich source of natural products with potential chemopreventive applications in cancer. In the present study, we explored the chemopreventive role and the molecular mechanism of Dolastatin, a linear peptide from an Indian Ocean mollusk, and Celecoxib, a well-established cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor in an individual as well as in a combination regimen in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in a rat model. After a 6-week treatment with DMH, morphological analysis revealed a marked occurrence of preneoplastic features in the colonic mucosa, whereas histologically well-characterized dysplasia and hyperplasia were observed in DMH-treated animals. Simultaneous administration of Celecoxib and Dolastatin reduced these features significantly. DMH treatment affected the number of apoptotic cells in colonic enterocytes, which reverted to the normal level with the use of Celecoxib and Dolastatin. Inflammation remains the dominant molecular mechanism in the development of multiple plaque lesions, the carcinogenic lesions in a DMH-induced process that may be mediated by COX-2. Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis revealed a higher expression of COX-2 and nuclear factor-κB, the transcription factors responsible for proinflammatory proteins such as TNFα, and also the inducible nitric oxide synthase in the DMH group, which was further recovered significantly with the use of Celecoxib and Dolastatin. In-silico molecular docking analysis of Dolastatin as a ligand with various regulatory proteins suggests that although the peptide failed to dock to COX-2, it successfully did so with inducible nitric oxide synthase, thereby indicating the potential of this inflammatory protein as a molecular anticancer target in colon carcinogenesis.